Technical Information

Anopheles funestus

These chromosome images were conveyed to the MR4 by Guiyun Yan (, Department of Biological Sciences,,State University of New York at Buffalo, Hoch 219 * Buffalo, NY 14260). They are similar to those printed in the manuscript "Linear and spatial organization of polytene chromosomes of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles funestus". Sharakhov, IV. Sharakhova, MV, Mbogo, CM, Koekemoer, LL and G Yan. Genetics 159:211-228, 2001. Medline. The full text of the article is available at the Genetics Society of America website.

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Anopheles gambiae

These pages contain images labeled to represent our working interpretation of the map of Prof. M. Coluzzi and Dr. A. Sabatini.

How the Images are Presented

Each link is named by the divisions shown. Partial subdivisions may be shown but not listed. Some overlap is intentional.

Technical Aspects

These images are also available in the original Adobe Photoshop (PSD) files and in other high resolution forms. 

Chromosomes were prepared from half-gravid ovaries of Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes by the method of Green and Hunt, 1980 (Interpretations of variation in ovarian polytene chromosomes of Anopheles funestus Giles, An. parensis Gillies, and An. aruni. Genetica 51:187-195). Chromosome images were collected from several spreads and individuals, though one high-quality spread was often used to produce images of several divisions. Strains used were PEST (pink-eye standard) and RSP (reduced susceptibility to permethrin).

NOTE: Images for divisions 23 and 27 were captured from spreads homozygous for the 2La inversion.

All images were obtained on an Olympus BX60 microscope using a Plan Apochromatic 100 X objective and a Sony Catseye DKC-5000 CCD (charge coupled device) camera. The original tiff images were collected in Adobe Photoshop as 3.4 megabyte TIFF color files. The images were rotated, cropped, white-spaces filled, and contrast, brightness, and hue adjusted in Adobe Photoshop. The image sizes were then proportionally reduced 50%, marked, and saved as both a Photoshop (PSD) file, and as the compression-level 4 JPEG file of approximately 20 kb that are viewed here. All divisions are shown at the same magnification.


These images are from the laboratory of Frank H. Collins and were collected during 1996-97 by Anthony J. Cornel at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The images were edited and HTML files written by Mark Q. Benedict. We thank Odette Mukabayire, Dr. Vincenzo Petrarca, Dr. M. A. Di Deco, and Mr. G. Petrangeli for careful comparison with their interpretation and their comments on these images. We also appreciate the photographic map made by Vasantha Kumar that we considered in our interpretation of the Coluzzi et al. map. We also thank the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the World Health Organization for generous support of research in vector biology.