HRP-Deleted Malaria Parasites


Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the histidine-rich proteins 2 and 3 (HRP2 and HRP3) of the malaria parasite play a vital role in malaria diagnosis and have replaced microscopy as the laboratory confirmatory tool for clinical diagnosis in most malaria-endemic countries. However, natural deletions of hrp2 and hrp3 genes encoding these proteins can undermine the practical utility of current RDTs, which cannot detect HRP-deleted parasites, leading to false negatives.1,2,3

HRP-deleted parasites and the progenitor strain from which they were derived through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing are now available through BEI Resources. These parasites can be used as positive controls in assays designed to detect HRP-deleted parasites and in studies to understand the evolution and spread of HRP deletions in natural parasite populations.

BEI Resources 

Single-Lineage Malaria Clones

MRA-1330 Plasmodium falciparum, Strain LA476-1
MRA-1331 Plasmodium falciparum, Strain LA476-1Δhrp2
MRA-1332 Plasmodium falciparum, Strain LA476-1Δhrp2/Δhrp3


PCR showing the ~ 300-base pair amplicon of the hrp2 gene present in MRA-1330 and the lack of bands in MRA-1331 and MRA-1332. (BEI Resources)



1. Nair, S., et al. “Fitness Costs of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 Deletions Underlying Diagnostic Evasion in Malaria Parasites.” J. Infect. Dis. 226 (2022): 1637-1645. PubMed: 35709327.

1. Nkhoma, S. C., et al. “Close Kinship within Multiple-Genotype Malaria Parasite Infections.” Proc. Biol. Sci. 279 (2012): 2589-2598. PubMed: 22398165.

1. Beshir, K. B., et al. “Screening Strategies and Laboratory Assays to Support Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein Deletion Surveillance: Where We Are and What is Needed.” Malar. J. 21 (2022): PubMed: 35751070.

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